Grand Journal of Urology
E-ISSN : 2757-7163

Coronavirus disease-2019 and Urological Cancers
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a global epidemic that has affected the whole world. COVID-19 has caused the postponement of elective operations, especially urological cancer surgeries, by affecting hospitals, patients, urologists, auxiliary health personnel, and resources at different rates in many countries and still continues with the current fluctuation. Delayed can-cer diagnosis and management during the pandemic will cause an increase in the incidence of untreated cancer patients in the coming months and we will face greater problems than the effects of COVID-19. If we list the urinary system cancers, they are adrenal, kidney, upper urinary system urothelial cancer, bladder, prostate, penis, and testicular cancer.
 
Adrenal gland cancers, especially adrenocortical cancer, have an aggressive course and require early surgery. Surgery for T1 kidney cancers may be delayed until sufficient resources are available. Early surgery should be planned if patients with T2 kidney cancer have unfavorable pre-operative prognostic factors, otherwise, it may be delayed. Higher stage kidney cancers should be considered for early surgery. An early multidisciplinary approach is recommended for metastatic kidney cancers. Early surgery should be performed especially in patients with the high-risk class of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is susceptible to high progression. Radical cystectomy, including neoadjuvant chemotherapy, should not exceed 12 weeks. If radical cystectomy cannot be performed, radiotherapy in combi-nation with chemotherapy should be considered for eligible patients. Patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer should be appropriately counseled based on their risk stratification. Intravesical treatments can be continued in accordance with urology guidelines. Short-term delays in this patient group do not carry a high risk of poor prognosis. Prostate cancer screening, imag-ing, and biopsies may generally be suspended. Active monitoring in low-risk prostate cancer should be done as in normal practice. Treatment can be safely delayed in low and intermediate-risk patients. Although surgery may be delayed in high-risk prostate cancer, neoadjuvant hormonal therapy and radiotherapy may need to be considered with little evidence. Initiation of long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) together with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in high-risk and very high-risk prostate cancer may be preferred as a suitable alternative. Testicular cancer should be treated in a timely manner with surgery or chemotherapy as indicated. Penile cancer can have worse sexual, functional, and oncological consequences with prolonged surgical delay. In penile cancer, negative results were observed in 3-month delays before inguinal lymphadenectomy.
 
COVID-19 has dramatically changed the management of urological cancers and raises concern in urological cancer management with its ongoing high case numbers. Telemedicine-online interviews and meetings that increase the patient's awareness about the disease and discuss complicated patients should be encouraged. In order to minimize the risk in all urological cancer groups, correct planning and, if possible, early surgical treatment should be carried out by considering previous guidelines and data on the management of urology cancer patients in the cur-rent COVID-19 pandemic period.