Grand Journal of Urology
E-ISSN : 2757-7163

Pediatric Urology
Original Article
Grand J Urol 2022;2(2):058-063, DOI: 10.5505/GJU.2022.87596
Objective: In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between primary monosymptomatic enuresis nocturna (MEN) and chronotypes in children. Materials and Methods: Fifty children diagnosed with primary MEN and 50 healthy children were included in the study. All participants underwent the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)-based psychiatric, and a semi-structured interview, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version, K-SADS-PL. The information obtained from the socio-demographic data form and Children's Chronotype Questionnaire (CCTQ) for the patient and the control groups were recorded and statistical analyses were carried out. Results: Evening chronotype was significantly more often observed in the patient group (X2=6,225, SD=2, p=0.044). No difference was found between the groups with regard to morning and intermediate chronotypes. In the patient group, the time of going to bed, turning off the lights, the time to start sleeping and mid-sleep time were significantly delayed in free days (p=0.001, p=0.005, p=0.004, and p=0.004, respectively). The sleep duration and the time spent in bed were also significantly shorter in the patient group (p=0.029, p=0.004, respectively). Conclusion: Primary MEN is associated with circadian rhythm disorders and evening chronotype. As the mechanisms that lead to this condition is not clear yet, further studies with randomized controlled design and larger sample size are required to determine etiopathogenesis and treatment options, and also to reveal the association between MEN and chronotypes.
Grand J Urol 2021;1(2):62-65, DOI: 10.5222/GJU.2021.47956
Objective: Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital defects in boys. Multifactorial factors such as genetic predisposition and environmental factors play a role in the etiology of hypospadias. In this study, we investigated the risk factors of patients diagnosed with hypospadias. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients who applied to the pediatric endocrinology and urology outpatient clinics with the diagnosis of hypospadias were evaluated retrospectively. Risk factors were evaluated by recording the parental ages, exposure to environmental factors, the maternal BMI, history of pregnancy, drug use, and the father's fertility status. Results: The mean age of the patients was 3.5 ± 2 years. The patients had anterior (n:27 : 75%), middle (midshaft) (n:8 ; 22.2%), and posterior (n:1 ; 2.8%) hypospadias. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the mothers was 24 ± 4.1 kg/m2. Eight (22.2%) mothers were overweight and six (16.6%) mothers were obese. There was a history of hypospadias in the family of 4 (11%) patients. Conclusion: Although combinations of environmental and genetic factors play a role in the etiology of hypospadias, many unexplained factors are responsible for this disease.
Case Report
Grand J Urol 2022;0(0):, DOI: 10.5505/GJU.2022.64936
Diphallus is a very rare congenital anomaly usually accompanied by various congenital anomalies and can be classified according to the anatomical structure in which the anomaly develops. Generally, in cases with diphallus the surgical approach is preferred, in that the hypoplastic structure has been excised for esthetic and functional purposes and penile reconstruction is performed. In addition, urethroplasties have been also performed in the presence of any accompanying urethral abnormality. In the current case, we report a two-year-old boy who was diagnosed as having glandular diphallus.