Grand Journal of Urology
E-ISSN : 2757-7163

General Urology
Letter to the Editor
Grand J Urol 2021;1(1):41-42, DOI: 10.5222/GJU.2021.98608
The new coronaviruses outbreak caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) originated from the Chinese region of Wuhan in the last quarter of 2019 affected approximately 75 million people all around the world and caused over 1.6 million deaths []. COVID-19 is a highly contagious viral infection and its main routes for transmission are the person to person contact, touch, and aerosol. While it has detrimental effects on respiratory and cardiovascular systems it also can be found in digestive and urinary systems. The frequently experienced symptoms are fever, dry cough, dyspnea, fatigue, and loss of appetite []. With an ongoing effort, several researchers focused on investigating a drug or vaccine to end the pandemic. Currently, despite there is no drug specifically approved for COVID-19 treatment, there has been more than one vaccine from different nations to prevent the virus spread. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, virology research constituted less than 2% of all biomedical research. But this rate has been increased to 10-20% which represents the incredible adaptation potential of the research community. By the way, the COVID-19 pandemic led to a massive influx of publication not only by virologists and infectious health specialists but also by almost all medical disciplines. To facilitate early dissemination of knowledge prior to any peer-review, many articles have been uploaded preprint services []. It is not realistic to assume that a qualified and strict peer-review process could compensate for the high number of submissions. Moreover, someone must be aware that those non-peer-reviewed materials could be picked up by the media and spread to the population. Social distancing and transmission issues have also led to travel and social restrictions that resulted in many trials to be suspended or delaying in patient recruitment []. It is wellknown that generally large-scale randomized trials were not set up in time in the previous pandemic. However, the use of modern information technologies in combination with oldfashioned randomization might lead to the rapid gain of viable results nowadays. Countries might be encouraged to establish clinical-trial networks to activate and arrange large multi-center studies []. COVID-19 pandemic deeply affects not only urological patient care but also urology residency education. Work hours modified and residences redeployed to serve in pandemic services in many countries. This situation came along with the problem of interrupted urologic training and unmet minimal case requirements. Generally, online learning curricula have been well-adopted by urologists. However, recent studies have been shown that such changes caused emotionally and physically stressful situations for trainees []. In conclusion, it is obvious that Coronavirus will continue to be in our daily life for a while. Thus, maintaining research and education is vital in all disciplines of medicine. Contributing to the scientific area with respect to essential requirements and ethics will support the development of all humanity in this crisis. Hereby, We would like to congratulate you on the first issue of your journal planned to be released in such a difficult time and wish you to have significant contributions to the field of urology in a strictly scientific manner. Sincerely yours.
Original Article
Grand J Urol 2021;1(2):55-61, DOI: 10.5222/GJU.2021.36855
Objective: Complete urinalysis (CUA) is one of the indispensable screening tests of clinical laboratories. The compatibility of this test with urine culture is of indispensable importance in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections. We aimed to evaluate the suitability of the leukocyte parameter measured in the microscopic units of the fully automated urine analyzers which replace traditional methods, by grouping them according to the results of chemical analysis. Materials and Methods: Leukocyte counts in the reported CUA results of 4685 outpatients and the results of 113 urine cultures studied on the same day were analyzed. Noncentrifugated urine samples were included in the analysis. Cells were digitally imaged by flow microscopy. Chemical analyzes were performed using dual wavelength reflectance method. Urine samples were evaluated after 24 hours of incubation. Results: High power field (HPF) values were recorded by grouping the leukocyte counts as negative, trace, 1+, 2+ and 3+. The arithmetic means of HPF values of the groups were calculated as 1.2, 2.1, 5.0, 11 and 208 white blood cell (WBCs/HPF). Bacterial growth was detected in 19 of 113 patients and no reproduction was observed in the remaining 94 cases. When results of microscopic examinations and chemical analysis were compared with the culture results, the analytical sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values for microscopic urinalysis were 25%, 86%, 61.3%, and 58.3%, respectively. While, the analytical sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values for chemical analysis of urine were 25.8%, 87.7%, 69.7%, and 51.4%, respectively. Conclusion: The workload of medical laboratories is increasing, and the use of urine autoanalyzers may be preferred for busy laboratories. In the diagnosis and follow-up of urinary tract infections, complete urinalysis by autoanalysers in which the harmony of their microscopy and chemical units are closely monitored, may reduce the need for unnecessary requests for urine culture, but it cannot replace urine culture.
Objective: Applications are made to health boards for age assessment, gender determination, employment in some occupational groups and detection of disability. The aim of our study is to determine the defined urological pathologies and their incidence rates in the patients who applied to the health board of our hospital. Materials and Methods: Our study included patients who applied to the urology outpatient clinic of the health board between January 2015 and December 2020 for the purpose of employment in some occupational groups, determination of age, gender, disabilities and obtaining a general health report. Patients were investigated in two different groups, according to their indications for their applications as detection of disabilities and other indications, and the diagnoses were classified under the subheadings of stone diseases, malignancies, neurourology-incontinence, andrology and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Results: A total of 1453 cases were included in the study. Hundred and fifty-one (10.4%) patients applied for the detection of disability. A total of 206 (17%) patients, including 70 (46.3%) cases in the disability detection group and 136 (10.4%) in the other group had a urological diagnosis. The most common pathology was malignancies with 65 (4.4%) cases, in order of frequency; testicular cancer (n=25: 38.4%), bladder cancer (n=15: 23%), prostate cancer (n=13: 20%), kidney cancer (n=11: 16.9%) and penile cancer (n=1: 1,5%). The second most frequently seen diagnostic group was the stone disease group (n=55: 3.7%), and 17 (30.9%) of them required further investigation after diagnosis. Consequently ESWL (n=6: 10.9%), and surgical intervention (n=4: 7.3%) were planned for the indicated number of patients. Conclusion: Urogenital system malignancies and urinary tract stones have been identified as the most common pathologies in patients who applied to the health board. The fact that some diseases, especially urolithiasis were followed by further examination and treatment, shows the contribution of the health board examinations to the treatment as well as the health status determination feature.
Case Report
Grand J Urol 2021;1(2):71-74, DOI: 10.5222/GJU.2021.25743
Hemorrhagic cystitis (HS) is a frequently seen complication of bone marrow transplantation. This condition occurs depending on the preparatory regimen of bone marrow transplantation. The BK virus (BKV), a human polyomavirus, is a small double helix DNA virüs belonging to the Papovaviridae family. It is commonly found in societies as an occult infection. Whereas, cidofovir (CDV), an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate, is used as a proven antiviral agent against polyomaviruses. In this case report, acute proximal tubular necrosis due to cidofovir used in hemorrhagic cystitis caused by BK virus, and its treatment in a patient diagnosed with T-lymphoblastic lymphoma in remission, and underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation, was presented.
Grand J Urol 2021;1(3):146-149, DOI: 10.5222/GJU.2021.79188
One of the reasons for the high mortality in COVID-19 patients is the increased risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and venous thromboembolism. For this reason, the use of anticoagulant treatments has become widespread. One of the rare complications of anticoagulant therapy is retroperitoneal hemorrhage. These hemorrhagies require immediate intervention. Retroperitoneal hemorrhage should be kept in mind among the many complications that develop in the patient who was followed up during the pandemic period. For this purpose, we present 2 cases who developed spontaneous retroperitoneal bleeding while clinically recovering under COVID-19 treatment.